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While throughoutthe recent centuries, Turkish had died out in the written language; it hadflourished in the spoken, lay language. Minorities in the s 13Finally, on April 10,the parliament eliminated from the constitution thedeclaration of Islam as Turkeys state religion.
Muslims who are of Arab race are being slowly butsurely compelled indirectly to leave Anatolia. They were a separate national community. The governmentwas going to transform all those who lived inside Turkey into Turks, at the cost ofno matter what happens. Aletter written from the Ministry of Interior on August 8, asked twenty-eightprovinces to be watchful over the visit of three American-Armenian geologists,Toros, Ermenak, and Hayk, to Turkey.
They were still trying sahl decide if theycould consider the Greeks, the Armenians, and the Jews as Turks. It is difficult to estimate the exact number of these since the census had four categories: Peoplein the country see all Muslims as Turks, regardless of their ethnicity or language.
When theBritish diplomats inquired about this homicide, 458 reported that the Turkishreply is a particularly odious example of official hypocrisy whether the Diarbekir[sic] police took part in this murder as it is not explicitly denied or not.
Itlaunched another 5, troops along the Iraqi and Syrian borders to fight the38 Minorities in the sMinorities in the s 39unrest. Third, this Inspectorate flanked the Soviet Union along theCaucasus border and acted as a security wall. Who are the most ancient inhabitants of Anatolia? Another aspect of vigilance was scrutiny of Armenians from other countries. Since onlyTurks are full members of the nation and considered loyal citizens, this ianunu is key to joining the mainstream society of the country.
However, even then, the Kurds had remained on the periph-ery of the Turkish-Muslim community. Accountable onlyto the capital, the Satl were administrative-military apparatuses withunprecedented powers. It isclear that even ten years of this procedure will make an enormous differencein the outlook of the people which has neither priests, literature nor leadersto keep its own traditions.
You have educated many a youth for this country. Islam of the Ottoman-Turkish Muslims in Anatolia as well as their educationand socialization in Turkish. They claimed that all of Turkeyspast and present inhabitants were ethnically and racially Turkish. We accept those citizens in the contemporary Turkish political and socialcommunity, as part of us, those citizens who accepted the ideas such asKurdism, Circassianism, and even Lazeism and Pomakism. Then,religion became the principal venue of nationalization in the Balkans.
These events, whichIrving Horowitz describes as ethnic homogenization, religious singularity, andnationalization, had created a deep rift gmk the Christians and Turkishnationalism. On September 7, a SCF rally drewmore thanpeople in Izmir whose population was barely overFeudal Kurdish chiefs in Turkey, whose influencehad been lessened by the Inspectorate, as well as tribal Kurds, participatedactively in the uprisings.
If the person has even the slightestfeeling of being different, lets erase that in schools and in society. However, it was really in the s, a decade of authoritarian nationalism, thatAnkara concentrated its energy on state-sponsored nationalism, defining whatconstituted Turkishness.
The Houses joined this process actively and launched a campaign topromote Turkish names. For that reason, following the establishment of Greek,Serbian, and Bulgarian states during the nineteenth century, many OttomanMuslims, including Turks, but also Greek, Serbian, Macedonian, Bosnian,Bulgarian PomakAlbanian, and Roma Muslims faced either extermination atthe hands of the newly independent states, or were expelled to the shrinkingOttoman possessions in Europe or to Anatolia. Ziya Gkalpthe founding father of Turkish nationalism, writes thatin times of great political disasters, national feeling gains utmost ascendancy.
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Due to his worries aboutpopular discontent, Atatrk moved to make the CHP into the countrys sole polit-ical organization. So far, theCUP had shied away from adopting Turkish nationalism as an exclusive ideology. Secularization pushed the Islamic faith out of the public domain. The speedy dismemberment of the Ottoman state in this period wasfollowed by the establishment of the Turkish republic by Mustafa Kemal Atatrkin The Turkish president thoughtof this as a means of funneling away the growing discontent in the countryagainst the Wnn government.
Signs were posted in theaters, restaurants, hotels,movie theaters, public ferries, and streetcars to recommend that everybody speakTurkish.
The latter camp, led by the nationalist poet Hamdullah Suphi Tanrverasserted that although they could be citizens, it was notpossible to acknowledge Armenians and Jews as Turks unless they abandonedtheir languages, as well as Armenianness and Jewishness. Callingnames such as Kurd, Circassian, Laze, and Pomak as mere labels, she said,As the product of the authoritarian era of kanunuu past, these false labels have causedanguish and have had manunu effect on any member of the nation, aside from a fewbrainless reactionaries who are the tools of the enemy.
Then, two more were added.
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Veyh Said and his men were captured on April 15 and executed immedi-ately after trial in the Wstikll Tribunals. The program emphasized the need for makingTurkish into a national language and teaching the ancient history of the Turks tothe nation.
Accordingly, when the Balkan Christians turnedto nationalism in the nineteenth century, their idea of ethnicity would be shapedby the millet system. On March 4, Wsmet Wnnwho would remain in power until November 1, took office. Thereare many examples of people from foreign races who have served the coun-try in this manner.
In order topromote development, the state would protect all sectors of the economy,including capital, labor, peasantry, and commerce. Given Turkish nationalisms benevolent attitude toward them, it could beexpected that in the s, the Jews would have a comfortable life under therepublic. The idea behind this was to divide the country intolarge regions, six according to the initial plan, which would be ruled by appointedgovernors.
Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Polandare other examples of this kind of state that usually started as a multi-partydemocracy in the s, and ended up an undemocratic regime or dictatorshipin the s.
Furthermore, during the elections, the Jews hadthrown their support behind the SCF when it had kznunu as a popular partyin Kanuju.
At this point, the government intervened in the campaign; Edirnes gover-nor ordered that signs promoting the Speak Turkish campaign be torn down. Other library staff, including Circulation, Microfilm Collection, andBorrow Direct personnel, made available much needed material for this work. Grew argued, It would seem possible thatminority organizations in the United States Kurds, Assyrians, Armenians may bedrawn together in unity of action against the common foe, Turkey.
Accordingly, Islam can serve also as a culture, as well as an identity and in mod-ern times even as an ideology for the Muslims. The idea of nationalism and the idea of the race are the ideas of newTurkey. In reality, inter-war Turkey was not an ethnically homogenous state.