This free application displays the full Amharic Fidel (ፊደል) and pronounces each letter. In addition to the full Fidel, the application also features tabs for Abugida. uh*, oo, ee, aa/a, ae/ay, eh, O. h. ሀ. ha. ሁ. hu. ሂ. hee. ሃ. haa. ሄ. hae. ህ. heh. ሆ. ho. l. ለ. le. ሉ. lu. ሊ. lee. ላ. la. ሌ. lay. ል. leh. ሎ. lo. h. ሐ. ha. ሑ. hu. ሒ. hee. ሓ. haa. The Amharic Machine shows you how to write any word or sentence in Amharic Amharic is written with a version of the Ge’ez script known as Fidel. There is.
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It is spoken as a first language by the Amharas and as a lingua franca by other populations residing in major cities and towns of Ethiopia. The language serves as the official working language of Ethiopia, and is also the official or working language of several of the states within the Ethiopian federal system.
There is no agreed way of romanising Amharic into Latin script. The Amharic examples in the sections below use one system that is common, though not universal, among linguists specialising in Ethiopian Semitic languages. It has been the working language of courts, language of trade and everyday communications, the military, and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church since the late 12th century and remains the official language of Ethiopia today.
File:Amharic alphabet Fidel – Wikimedia Commons
It is the most widely spoken language in the Horn of Africa. The Amharic ejective consonants correspond to the Proto-Semitic ” emphatic consonants “, amharif transcribed with a dot below the letter. The consonant and vowel tables give these symbols in parentheses where they differ from the standard IPA symbols. The Amharic script is an abugidaand the graphemes of the Amharic writing system are called fidel. Some consonant phonemes are written by more than one series of characters: This is because these fidel originally represented distinct sounds, but phonological changes merged them.
The Amharic script is included in Unicode, and glyphs are included in fonts available with major operating systems. As in most other Ethiopian Semitic languagesgemination is contrastive in Amharic. Gemination is not indicated in Amharic orthography, but Amharic readers typically do not find this to be a problem.
This property of the writing system is analogous to the vowels of Arabic and Hebrew or the tones of many Bantu languages, which are not normally indicated in writing. One may construct simple Amharic sentences by using a subject and a predicate. Here are a few simple sentences: In most languages, there is a small number of basic distinctions of personnumberand often gender that play a role within the grammar of the language.
In Amharic, as in other Semitic languages, the same distinctions appear in three other places in their grammar. All Amharic verbs agree with their subjects ; that is, the person, ifdel, and in the amharc and third-person singular gender of the subject of the verb are marked by suffixes or prefixes on the verb. Amharic verbs often have additional morphology that indicates the person, number, and second- and third-person singular gender of the object of the verb.
For arguments of the verb other than the subject or the object, there are two separate sets of related suffixes, one with a benefactive meaning toforthe other with an adversative or locative meaning againstficel the detriment ofonat.
Morphemes such as -llat and -bbat in these examples will be referred to in this article as prepositional object pronoun suffixes because they correspond to prepositional phrases such as for her and on herto distinguish them from the direct object pronoun suffixes such as -at ‘her’. Amharic has a further set of morphemes that are suffixed to nouns, signalling possession: In each of these four aspects of the grammar, independent pronouns, subject—verb agreement, object pronoun suffixes, and possessive suffixes, Amhharic distinguishes eight combinations of person, number, and gender.
For first person, there is a two-way distinction between singular I and plural wewhereas for second and third persons, there is a distinction between singular and plural and within the singular a further distinction between masculine and feminine you m. Amharic is a pro-drop language: The Amharic words that translate heIand her do not appear in these sentences as independent words.
Ethiopian Alphabet: Amharic Letters and the Alphabet in Ethiopia
However, in such cases, the person, number, and second- or third-person singular gender of the subject and object are marked on the verb.
Zmharic the subject or object in such sentences is emphasized, an independent pronoun is used: The table below shows alternatives for many of the forms. Within second- and third-person singular, there are two additional polite independent pronouns, for reference to people to whom the speaker wishes to show respect. This usage is an example of the so-called T—V distinction that is made in many languages.
Amhariv these forms are singular semantically—they refer to one person—they correspond to third-person plural elsewhere in the grammar, as is common in other T—V systems. For the possessive pronouns, however, the polite 2nd person has the special suffix -wo ‘your sg. For possessive pronouns mineyoursetc. For reflexive pronouns ‘myself’, ‘yourself’, etc. Like English, Amharic makes a two-way distinction qmharic near ‘this, these’ and far ‘that, those’ demonstrative expressions pronouns, adjectives, adverbs.
Besides number, as in English, Amharic also distinguishes masculine and feminine gender in the singular. There are also separate demonstratives for formal reference, comparable to the formal personal pronouns: The singular pronouns have combining forms beginning with zz instead of y when they follow a preposition: Amharic nouns can be primary or derived.
Amharic nouns can have a masculine or feminine gender. There are several ways to express gender. An example is the old suffix -t for femininity. This suffix is no longer productive and is limited to certain patterns and some isolated nouns.
Nouns and adjectives ending in -awi usually take the suffix -t to form the feminine form, e. Some nouns and adjectives take a feminine marker -it: Some nouns have this feminine marker without having a masculine opposite, e.
There are, however, also nouns having this -it suffix that are treated as masculine: The feminine gender is not only used to indicate biological gender, but may also be used to express smallness, e.
The feminine marker can also serve to express tenderness or sympathy. Amharic has special words that can be used to indicate the gender of people and animals.
Some morphophonological alternations occur depending on the final amhsric or vowel. Some kinship -terms have two plural forms with a slightly different meaning.
In compound wordsthe plural marker is suffixed to the fidell noun: Amsalu Aklilu has pointed out that Amharic has inherited a large number of old plural fideo directly from Classical Ethiopic Ge’ez Leslau There are basically two archaic pluralising strategies, called external and internal plural.
The external plural consists of adding the suffix -an usually masculine or -at usually feminine to the singular form. The internal plural employs vowel quality or apophony to pluralize words, similar to English man vs.
Sometimes combinations of the two systems fisel found. The archaic plural forms are sometimes used to form new plurals, but this is only considered grammatical in more established cases. In singular forms, this article distinguishes between the male and female gender; in plural forms this distinction is absent, and all definites are marked with – ue. As in the plural, morphophonological alternations occur depending on the final consonant or vowel.
Its use is related to the definiteness of the object, thus Amharic shows differential object marking. In general, if the object is definite, possessed, or a proper fiidel, the accusative must be used Leslau Amharic has various ways to derive nouns from other words or other nouns.
One way of nominalising consists of a form of vowel agreement similar vowels on similar places inside the three-radical structures typical of Semitic languages. As in other Semitic languagesAmharic verbs use a combination of prefixes and suffixes to indicate the subject, distinguishing 3 persons, two numbers, and in all persons except first-person and “honorific” pronouns two genders.
Along with the infinitive and the present participle, the gerund is one of three non-finite verb forms. The infinitive is a nominalized verb, the present participle expresses incomplete action, and the gerund expresses completed action, e.
There are several usages of the gerund depending on its morpho-syntactic features. The gerund functions as the head of a subordinate clause see the example above. There may be more than one gerund in one sentence. The gerund is used to form the following tense forms:. The gerund can be used as an adverb: Adjectives are words or constructions used to qualify nouns. Adjectives in Amharic can be formed in amharif ways: Adjectives can be nominalized by way of suffixing the nominal article see Nouns above.
Amharic has few primary adjectives. The adjective and the noun together are called the ‘adjective noun complex’.
Amharic Alphabets – ፊደላት in Amharic
In Amharic, the adjective precedes the amharc, with the verb last; e. If the adjective noun complex is definite didel, the definite article is suffixed to the adjective and not to the noun, e. In a possessive construction, the adjective takes the definite article, and the noun takes the pronominal possessive suffix, e.
When enumerating adjectives using -nna ‘and’, both adjectives take the definite article: In the case of an indefinite plural adjective amharif complex, the noun is plural and the adjective may be used in singular or in plural form. Not much has been published about Amharic dialect differences. All dialects are mutually intelligible, but certain minor variations are noted. Mittwoch described a form of Amharic spoken by the descendants of Weyto language speakers,  but it was likely not a dialect of Amharic so much as the result of incomplete language learning as the community shifted languages from Weyto to Amharic.
There is a growing body of literature in Amharic in many genres. This literature includes government ammharic and records, qmharic books, religious material, novels, poetry, proverb collectionsdictionaries monolingual and bilingualtechnical manuals, medical topics, etc.
The Holy Bible was first translated into Amharic by Abu Rumi in the early 19th century, but other translations of the Bible into Amharic have been done fkdel.
Many Rastafarians learn Amharic as a second language, as they consider it to be sacred. After Haile Selassie’s visit to Jamaica, study circles in Amharic were organized in Jamaica as part of the ongoing exploration of Pan-African identity and culture.
The Abyssiniansa reggae group, have also used Amharic, most notably in the song ” Satta Massagana “. The correct way to say “give thanks” in Amharic is one word, videl. The word “satta” has become a common expression in the Rastafari dialect of English, Iyaricmeaning “to sit down and partake”.
Amharic is supported on most major Linux distributions, including Fedora and Ubuntu. In FebruaryMicrosoft released its Windows Vista operating system in Amharic, enabling Amharic speakers to use its operating system in their language.