Hence, they are of great interest in understanding the evolution of gigantism and the biophysical constraints acting upon terrestrial life (Clauss ;Sander et al. The unique gigantism of sauropod dinosaurs was made possible by a high basal . in Amniote Paleobiology: Perspectives on the Evolution of Mammals, Birds. Biology of the Sauropod Dinosaurs reports on the latest results from Sauropod Biology and the Evolution of Gigantism: What Do We Know?.

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Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.

Titanosaurs were most unusual among evlution, as in addition to the external claw, they completely lost the digits of the front foot. The bird-like hollowing of sauropod bones was recognized early in the study of these animals, and, in fact, at least one sauropod specimen found in the 19th century Ornithopsis was originally misidentified as a pterosaur a flying reptile because of this.

He named the new genus Ornithopsisor “bird face” because of this. The sauropod body plan and body size.

Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism

Both mastication and a gastric mill would have limited food uptake rate. This view is supported by recent work on the scaling and interplay of gut contents, food retention time, food intake rate, and degree of particle reduction that shows that sauropods could have compensated for large ingesta particle size with long retention times Clauss et al.

Paleoatmospheric predictions for the Mesozoic redefine limits for combustion in low O 2. On the contrary, the heat flow models e. Another important part of the energy budget of an animal is taken up by reproduction, albeit with a more episodic energy expenditure.


Our work on sauropod dinosaurs thus informs us about evolutionary limits to body size in other groups of herbivorous terrestrial tetrapods. The weights of dinosaurs. On the rareness of big, fierce animals: This perspective takes all constraints into account and aids in formulating hypotheses about evoluton sauropod dinosaurs overcame them Fig. Sander; biomechanics and functional morphology: Recent work by Wedel suggests that volume-based estimates are generally too high because they are based on a specific density in a living sauropod of 0.

Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism – Semantic Scholar

Campylodoniscus Clasmodosaurus Hypselosaurus Iuticosaurus Macrurosaurus? Long-necked dinosaurs may actually have had stiff necks”. While sauropods could therefore not have been aquatic as historically depicted, there is evidence that they preferred wet and coastal habitats. Body mass of the largest species inhabiting a land mass regressed against the size of the land mass in extant and Late Pleistocene terrestrial amniotes. Biology of the Sauropod Dinosaurs: An allometric analysis of the giraffe cardiovascular system.

Geeand P. The study of the upper limit of body size must address extrinsic as well as intrinsic factors, and it must be determined whether this limit is set by the bauplan of the organisms or by physical and ecological constraints imposed by the environment. Predator—prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web. Mallison concluded that diplodocids were better adapted to rearing than elephantswhich do so occasionally in the wild. Cope had even referred to these structures as “floats”.

Sauropods in the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation ecosystem are also hypothesized to have been food-limited.


A sauropodomorph dinosaurs from the Upper Triassic Carnian of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic bracketing Witmer, and physiological arguments suggest that all dinosaurs gigabtism a four-chambered heart with a complete separation of pulmonary and body blood Seymour, ; Paladino et al. Another crucial innovation inherited from basal dinosaurs was a high BMR. Flow chart of the evolutionary cascade leading to sauropod gigantism.

Each method has different sources of error, and the main advantages and disadvantages of some of these methods have been intensively discussed in the literature Colbert, ; Lambert, ; Schmidt-Nielsen,; Anderson et al.

Dimensions of Brachiosaurus brancai Dicraeosaurus hansemanni and Diplodocus carnegei and their physiological implications for gravitational physiology. Pes anatomy in sauropod dinosaurs: With sauropod body size, as the largest inhabitants of the land masses, being closely tied to land mass size Burness et al.

The pituitary body in giant animals fossil and living: Neck posture and body design in sauropods. Implications of ecological energetics and biophysical and developmental constraints for life-history variation in dinosaurs. Modelling the physiology of large dinosaurs. Biomechanical calculations indicate that the large size of sauropods limited them fo certain gaits, excluding the possibility of running, i.

However, although the brain of sauropods was often said to be extraordinarily small, it actually falls within the allometric regression for a reptile of this size Hopson, On the head size of sauropodomorph dinosaurs:

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