Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only once a year. The Treatise on Light of Huygens has, however, withstood the test of time: and even now the exquisite skill with which he applied his. Treatise on Light In which are explained the causes of that which occurs in Christiaan Huygens. translated by Silvanus P. Thompson.

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Treatise on Light

Now all these circumferences have for a common tangent the straight line BN; namely the same line which is drawn as a tangent from the point B to the circumference SNR which we considered first. Equally so in every reflexion of the light, against whatever body it may be, the angles of reflexion and incidence ought to be equal notwithstanding that the body might be of such a nature that it takes away a portion of the movement made by the incident light.

Treatise on Light was published in and is probably the largest scientific volume on light published before Newton’s Opticks. For the perpendiculars AD, CE, let fall from the points of intersection upon the straight line DE, which are called the Sines livht the angles ABD, CBE, have a certain ratio between themselves; which ratio is always the same for all inclinations of the incident ray, at least for a given transparent body.

This, in my opinion, we must necessarily do, or else renounce lihht hopes of ever comprehending anything in Physics. Also if one wishes to seek for any other way in which the movement of Light treatixe successively communicated, huygfns will find none which agrees better, with uniform progression, as seems to be christixan, than the property of springiness; because if this movement should grow slower in proportion as it is shared over a greater quantity of matter, in moving away from the source of the light, it could not conserve this great velocity over great distances.

Daniel rated it really liked it Nov 15, All that I have just said has been likewise remarked by Mr. As to that which occurs in the production of Sound, one knows that it is occasioned by the agitation undergone by an entire body, or by a considerable part of one, which shakes all the contiguous air. And as, in this extraordinary refraction, the point M is seen by the refracted ray MKI, which I consider as going to the eye at I, it necessarily follows that the point Chrstiaan, by virtue of the same refraction, will be seen by the refracted ray LRI, so that LR will be parallel to MK if the distance from the eye KI is supposed very great.

But the thing to be above all remarked in our demonstration is that it does not require that christuaan reflecting surface should be considered as a uniform plane, as has huygenz supposed by all those who have tried to explain the effects of reflexion; but only an evenness such as may be attained by the particles of the matter of the reflecting body being set near to one another; which particles hugens larger than those of the lightt matter, as will appear by what we shall say in treating of the transparency and opacity of bodies.

But it must be noted that the speed of light in this argument has been assumed such that it takes a time of one hour to make the passage from here to the Moon. Equality of size seems to be more necessary, because otherwise there ought to be some reflexion of movement backwards when it passes from a smaller particle to a larger one, according to the Laws of Percussion which I published lihgt years ago.

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Bartholinus in the aforesaid treatise; if we differ it is only slightly about the values of the angles. The majority of those who have written touching the various parts of Optics have contented themselves with presuming these truths. Huygens was a leading scientist of his time.

Whence the configuration of the waves ought to become nearly such as this figure represents: For it is easy to see that all the other circumferences will touch the same BN, from B up to the point of contact N, which is the same point where AN falls perpendicularly on BN.

Preview — Treatise on Light by Christiaan Huygens. And this suffices to show that the ray will continue along the curved line which intersects all the waves at right angles, as has been said. As to this it is to be remarked that there is a law of motion serving for this propagation, and verifiable by experiment. Some of it is therefore present continuously and in quantities between the particles of silver and of all other opaque bodies: If one considers the vast size of the diameter KL, which according to me is some 24 thousand crhistiaan of the Earth, one will acknowledge the extreme velocity of Light.

But the truth is that this matter not only passes through solids, but does so even with great facility; of which the experiment of Torricelli, above cited, is already a proof. But to demonstrate this curvature of the rays conformably to all our preceding Theory, let us buygens that AB is a small portion of a wave of light coming from the side C, which we may consider as a straight line.

And in proportion as it is compressed the more does it exert an effort to regain its volume; for this property along with its penetrability, which remains notwithstanding its compression, seems to prove that it is made up of small bodies which float about and which are agitated very rapidly in huygsns ethereal matter composed of much smaller parts. Owing to the circumstance that the French word rayon possesses the double signification of ray of light and radius of a circle, he avoids its use in the latter sense and speaks always of the semi-diameter, not of the radius.

Christiaam one considers further the other pieces H of cheistiaan wave AC, it appears that they will not only have reached the surface AB by straight lines HK parallel to CB, but that in addition they will have generated in the transparent air, from the centres K, K, K, particular spherical waves, represented here by circumferences the semi-diameters of which are equal to KM, that is to say to the continuations of HK as chrisitaan as the line BG parallel to AC.

Constantijn Huygens was a diplomat and advisor to the House of Orange, and also a poet and musician. Des Cartes gives for the spring, though I do not, like him, suppose the pores to be in the form of round hollow canals. Another property, similar to this, is that the refractions are reciprocal between the rays entering into a transparent body and those which are leaving it.

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Treatise on Light (Illustrated Edition)

For having had cut from it some well polished Prisms of different sections, I remarked in all, in viewing through them the flame of a candle or the lead of window panes, that everything appeared double, though with images huugens very distant from one another. Then place the Crystal upon the intersection E so that the line AB concurs with that which bisects the obtuse angle of the lower surface, or with some line parallel to it.

Thus one sees manifestly that the reflexion of glass is stronger than that of water, and that of diamond stronger than that of glass. Then instead of the hemispherical partial waves which in a body of ordinary refraction chriistiaan spread from each of these last points, as we have above explained in treating of refraction, these llght here be hemi-spheroids.

Mar 30, Jim rated it liked chrisgiaan. Luke Langley rated it liked it Dec 30, And one may even show that these interstices occupy much more space than the coherent particles which constitute the bodies.

Treatise on Light – Wikipedia

His father gave him a liberal education: When you buy the General Books edition of this book you get free trial access to Million-Books. For this sphere being for example of silver, it is certain that it contains some hiygens the ethereal matter which serves for light, since this was there as well as in the air when the opening of the sphere was closed.

Kodi rated it liked it Oct 02, We know that by means of the air, which is an invisible and impalpable body, Sound spreads around the spot where it has been produced, by a movement which is passed on successively from one part of the air to another; and that the spreading of this movement, taking place equally rapidly on all sides, ought to form spherical surfaces ever enlarging and which strike our ears.

Boyle has given us, and with which he has performed so many beautiful experiments. Rishikesh Pancholi rated it it was amazing Jan 12, And without supposing that the ethereal particles are of spherical form for I see indeed no need to suppose them so one treatisse well understand that this property of communicating an impulse does not fail to contribute to the aforesaid propagation of movement.

This, however, is contrary to experience, since the angle GEC would be very sensible, and about 33 degrees. Then if one considers in order the other pieces H of the wave AC, chistiaan appears that in the same time that the piece C reaches B they will not only have arrived at the surface AB along the straight lines HK parallel to CB, but that, in addition, they will have generated in the diaphanous substance from the centres K, partial waves, represented here by circumferences the semi-diameters of which are equal to two-thirds of the lines KM, that is to say, to two-thirds of the prolongations of HK down to the straight line BG; for these semi-diameters would have been equal to entire lengths of KM if the two transparent substances had been of the same penetrability.

And this ethereal matter, as has been shown above, consists of particles which just touch one another.

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