The ANC,* however, refused to disband MK,* while the CP,* AZAPO* and the PAC* baulked at the idea of holding negotiations. Notwithstanding this, CODESA 1. The result was the Pretoria Minute, an agreement that all the obstacles identified by the ANC as obstructing negotiations would be removed or addressed The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) formed an integral part of negotiating an end to apartheid and the beginning of a.

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The ANC and its alliance partners then launched various mass action country-wide campaigns which led to a tragedy in the Eastern Cape province where the Bisho Massacre occurred. They simply could not cross that hurdle.

Retrieved from ” https: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. This page was last edited on 16 Decemberat The latter was simply out of the question. Shaking Hands with Billy.

Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa – Wikipedia

UMkhonto weSizwe celebrates 50 years in December Eugene de Kock and accomplice eligible for parole. Ramaphosa and his colleagues brought the matter to Mandela late in the evening on 14 May. If the government does not carry out its duties [it said] we will have to find ways and means to defend our people against these criminal attacks.

Few had had any training in the use of weapons, and many were as intent on using their arms to enrich themselves at the expense of the communities they were supposed to protect as they were in protecting the communities from violent onslaughts.

Retrieved 6 July Every effort that we made to launch negotiations and every agreement that we reached [with the ANC] were dismissed in Conservative Party propaganda as concessions and deviations under pressure that the election promises that we made during the election campaign. While De Klerk hailed his victory 93 seats out of as an endorsement of the NP’s platform, the fact that negotiahions the CP and the DP had made inroads into its constituency meant that it was being squeezed from both the right and the left, and that the results did not constitute a radical shift in white opinion, but rather codesx support for the right was growing, albeit at a slow rate, slower than might be expected, given the broad outline of reforms the NP had proposed.


As the National Party cracked down on black opposition to apartheid, most leaders of ANC and other opposition organisations were either killed, imprisoned or went into exile. Negotiation, Transition and Freedom”.

The Groote Schuur Minute showed that problems, which were previously perceived as being intractable, really could be amicably resolved. Ramaphosa himself admits to engineering the nrgotiations of CODESA 11, saying that he wanted to show “the people of South Africa that they were dealing with an enemy that would not give in easily.

The Battle of Cuito Cuanavale created a window of opportunity to create the enabling conditions for a negotiated settlement, recognized by Dr Niel Barnard of the National Intelligence Service.

Return to the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory site. Part of a series on. In the course of the negotiating and negotjations process, the government under De Klerk also had detainees released who were classified as political prisoners at that time.

The obvious objectives were to discuss strategies of the proposed new democratic South Africa, constitutional matters, arrangements for an interim government and what to do with the divided homelands.

Convention For A Democratic South Africa (CODESA) – The O’Malley Archives

This provided Mandela with more comfortable lodgings, but also gave easier access in a way that could not be compromised. In the first year since its unbanning, the ANC had managed to sign-up a meremembers. Between andthe African National Congress and other mainly black opposition political organisations were banned.

Black lives were cheap ocdesa counted for nothing.

If, after six months, the constituent assembly failed to agree on a constitution, a referendum would be held at which point the votes of a simple majority of the electorate would suffice to pass the new constitution.

Outright hatred lends itself to an antidote; lingering dislike does not. When the Pretoria meeting began Mandela announced that effective immediately, the ANC would suspend the armed struggle “in the interest of moving as speedily as possible towards a negotiated settlement and in the context of the agreement reached. The ANC instead took to the streets with a programme of ” rolling mass action “, which met with tragedy in the Bisho massacre in Septemberwhen the army of the nominally independent ” homeland ” of Ciskei opened fire on protest marchers, killing This new phase was designed to test public opinion about a negotiated solution.


A period of brinkmanship followed, with the IFP remaining out of the negotiations until within days of the election on 27 April Following the Record of Understanding, the two main negotiating parties, the ANC and the NP, agreed to reach bilateral consensus on issues before taking them to the other parties in the forum.

Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa

The CP returned to the trenches and complained about the unfairness of it all. Among many veterans of the struggle there was a joke: University of California Press. Other sticking points included minority rights, decisions on a unitary or federal state, property rights, and indemnity from prosecution for politically motivated crimes.

The Boipatong Massacre in June collapsed the process. Ramaphosa had his instructions, and Mandela had little doubt that Ramaphosa’s not inconsiderable ingenuity would rise to the occasion.

The O’Malley Archives

In accordance with the National Archives and Records Service of South Africa Act, records in the custody of the National Archives must be made publically available after a period of 20 years has elapsed since the end of the year the records came into existence. In order to facilitate a government of unity, De Klerk became his deputy together with the ANC’s Thabo Mbeki, who succeeded Mandela and served two terms. We are reluctant to do this because we are committed to the idea of peace.

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