This text explains in detail the meaning of death. It also touches subjects like why we are born, why we live, why some fear death and how understanding death. Nonetheless, Āyatullāh Muťahharī always retained great respect and affection of Man · Evils, An Excerpt from Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari’s Divine Justice. Throughout the history of thought and action, the justice of God has been a In the end, I have to thank Muhammad Taqi Ja’fari and Murtadha Mutahhari.

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In the first part, an answer will be given to the dualists, who maintain two types or sources of existence. The mutahnari applies with regard to moral actions and ugly qualities. In nature, good and evil are bound and mixed together in such a way that it is as if they have been compounded together, not a chemical compound, but a deeper and more subtle compounding, of the type of the compounding of being and non-being.

In reality, the dualists wished to exonerate God of evil, and ended up charging Him with having an associate. The conclusion that can be reached from this discussion is only that being is not of two types: For example, we say that mktahhari apple or a pair is small, muthahari another apple or pair is big.

I had the book but it was destroyed in a basement flood.

Death, An Excerpt from Murtadha Mutahhari’s Divine Justice

If a beast of prey were to exist but not to prey [on other things], that is, if it were not to cause loss of life for anything, it would not be evil, and if it exists and loss of life takes place, it is evil. These types of attributes, which are suppositional and derivational attributes, are at the same time necessary and inseparable corollaries of their objects, which are real and actual things.

But Islam, at the same time as it considers God to be the origin of all existence and possessor of unending mercy and supreme wisdom, it doesn’t find fault with His supreme will and uncontestable power; it relates everything to Him, even Satan and his leading astray.

Register a new account. This is why philosophers have said that evils are not created by essence; in their essence they are not effects or created. If this analysis is accepted, it is the first step and the first level; its effect is that it drives from one’s mind the question, who created evils?

These are not non-being by their essence, but they are beings that necessitate non-being. Of course, without the sun, there would be no shadow as well, but the causality of the sun with respect to shadow is different from its causality with respect to light.


Foreword | Divine Justice or The Problem of Evil |

In books of philosophy, this idea is attributed to the ancient Greeks and specifically to Plato. Now we must see whether the evilness of evil things is a real attribute or a relative attribute. The answer is that there is no more than one type of being in the universe, and that is the existence of good things; evils are all of the form of non-being, and non-being is not a created thing.

The answer that philosophers have given to the issue of evils includes three parts: We also call a particular watermelon small. In contrast, a relative attribute is one in which supposing [the existence of] a thing and an attribute is not sufficient in order for that thing to be described by that attribute, unless some third thing is supposed that can serve as a basis for comparison and relation.

Our Method Using the same material that Islamic philosophers have mentioned in this discussion, we have engaged in answering the problem of evils in a new fashion. Illnesses, storms, fires, and earthquakes are of this type. That is, is this world possible without these deficiencies, or are they inseparable corollaries of this world, with their non-existence being equivalent to the non-existence of the world? I did a quick search and found this http: And many other attributes are the same way, such as quantity and dimension.

These two points comprise the second and third part of our discussion regarding evils, which we indicated earlier. Evils from the Aspect of the Principle of Justice In this way, the objection of the dualists and the fallacious idea of the duality and dual origin of being is eliminated, since it was demonstrated that being is not of two types for there to be a need of two origins. Attributes by which things are described are of two types: In the second case—that they are inseparable—is the entirety of the universe, with all its goodnesses and evils, good or bad?

Rather, the ultimate and real absolute, which is a reality free of every condition, cause, and limitation, is the Divine Essence, and it is from this perspective that the necessity of His Essence is an pre-eternal necessity and not an essential necessity in its conventional meaning. Rate this topic 1 2 3 4 5. Evil is relative Attributes by which things are described are of two types: Hence there is no absolute evil in the world; Evil is relative 1know this truth also.

But later philosophers have analyzed it better and to a greater extent; and since we consider this point to be correct and fundamental, we mention it here to the extent appropriate to this book. I’m trying to contact AIM Islam – their bookstore has Divine Justice listed, but when I try to add to cart or check out there’s a website error.


Instead, being, inasmuch as it is being, is good; and non-being, inasmuch as it is non-being, is evil; beings can be evil inasmuch as they are coupled with non-beings or are the sources of non-beings. By GoswamiSaturday at Mormons 1 2 3 By IslandsandmirrorsFriday at For example, knowledge is a perfection for a human being which the innate human capacity demands and moves toward, and, for this reason, deserves. Already have an account?

Snake poison is not bad for the snake; it is bad for human beings and other animals that are harmed by it. The point is that here, where our discussion is about the relativity of the evilness of beings from which essential evils—meaning non- beings—originate, the intent is relativity as opposed to reality and actuality, not relativity as opposed to absoluteness, in which sense many good things are also relative.

The overall ascent of the world-and especially humanity-and the mission of humanity in mutzhhari that which has been placed on its shoulders is a part of the beautiful order of the world. Why are some beings good and some evil? This is why a body that loses the attribute of life and turns into an inanimate object has descended, not ascended.

Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari

In such cases, what is evil is evil with respect to one or several specific things. A wolf is evil for itself? This website specifically I emailed asking whether they had it in stock and haven’t received a reply in about two weeks.

As for the aspect of Divine justice and infinite Divine wisdom, there are still other levels which we have to pass after this one. Neither can we deny the existence of these things, nor their being evil. In any case, attribution of suppositional things to a cause is accidental.

Sign up for a new account in our community. Wherever we speak of evil, there is definitely a non-being and lack [of something] involved. Here, the standard is the size of other apples and pairs; that is, the apple or pair in question is either smaller or larger in size compared to other apples and pairs that we are familiar with.

Thus, in being itself there is no overruling duality for the idea of two sources of being to take root. Divine justice requires that these vacuums be filled.

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