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Their life histories are essentially similar, except that A.

Spencer a has discussed such an assemblage in an area of British Columbia and attempted to follow some of the interactions. The most important of these belong to Chlaenius sens. I n Lepeshkin, S. These groups are discussed separately below. Greathead on the insect enemies of Acridoidea Orthoptera 2.

Too many species are involved to be described in detail, but in the main the life histories are very similar. The pupal inster is short, of one to three weeks’ duration, and emergence occurs after the pupa has worked itself to the surface and partially protrudes from the soil.

Natural mortality in gregarious populations. Proctotrupoidea The larvae of all species of this family with known life histories are internal parasites of the eggs of insects of various orders.

CrimeaS. Amongst egg-predators, size of egg-pod is thought to affect the species found in egg-pods Zakhvatkin, The adults live two or three weeks. Africa and in South West Africa in Africa ; 97, S. In Menaoria de la campana contra la langosta en Siberia, U. Thus Scelio species are limited in their hosts by the size of the eggs, and possibly by the toughness of the chorion ; for example, Podism pedmtris is considered by Zakhvatkin to be free from attack for this reason.


Gymnosorno Grass6 listed G. In the case of Blaesoxipha and possibly that of Scelw spp.


Turkestan 90, FormosaU. There is thus a great body of literature on natural enemies and much of it was summarised by Uvarov in a chapter in his Locusts and Grassbpers. Up to 20 eggs are laid at a time in cracks in the soil, and the capacity of each female of this species is said to be between and eggs over the season. Turkestan 32, U.

The remainder, Calypterata, need to make direct contact with the host, and here details of host and parasite behaviour are important. Prionmyxleave a mound of earth at the entrance to the burrow and place their eggs between the prothoracic legs see, especially, Williams, a ; Newton, Sarwtmhinella sinuata Meigen Blanchd. Three larval instars are passed in the host, and the fully-grown larva escapes most often through a hole made in the neck membrane. The eggs hatch after days and the larvae feed for days before moving into the soil to pupate.

The entry hole was not observed. Asia, Turkmenistan ; U. When subsequent workers have seen the original material and corrected the records, only the corrected names are jirdan D. Zur Kenntnis der Diptera.


Two pupal parasites of X. Greathead on the insect e? The differential grasshopper in the Mississippi Delta- other common species. Azerbaijan Acridine, USA.

The abdomen of the 0y is inserted into the top of the froth plug and one or more eggs, up to about ten, are laid in the froth. Asia, Trancaucesia ; U. Azerbaijan 97, Tanganyika 32, U. Para- sitised eggs are easily recognised, as the chorion becomes more opaque and darker than in healthy eggs.

Astrakhan ;U. Species of Tafihysphex, unlike those unoon S.


It is hoped that nothing important has been overlooked and that the following catalogues will provide a useful guide to the literature and to the range of insect enemies of the Acridoidea.

Three instars are passed in the egg-pod, and they have been named by Bxlduf the caraboid and scarabaeoid larvae because of All eurropea Paoli W i n t h k and Zenilliam Winthemia and Zenilliana are other genera parasitising Lepidoptera which have been recorded once as parasites of Locusta migratoria ; again errors in identification are suggested.

A compilation of facts about its occurrence and control.

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