16; Louis Vax, Arte y literatura fantásticas (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, ), p. 6. 2. Victor Shklovski, “El arte como artificio” in Teoría de la literatura de los. EL ARTE COMO ARTIFICIO; Autor. Shklovski. INTEGRANTES: Antonieta Ontiveros Ruiz; Adriana López Núñez; Gabriela G. Agis Mendoza. Dra. Flor de María. Shklovski, Viktor (). El arte como artificio (). In Todorov, Tzvetan (Ed.), Teoría de la literatura de los formalistas rusos. Argentina: Siglo XXI, pp.

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Fiction does not define reality nor pay tribute to it, but it departs from it to model something completely different. There is no predetermined story created by a designer regarding artifcio the player decides within these choices.

Se preocupan de los procedimientos, artificios. From these two principles, God conceives of infinite possible worlds and choses one of them as the best possible. Regardless of the reasons that have ostracized the study of video games in Artifiico, it must be noted that its epistemological standing is currently in a state of remarkable emergency.

To clarify, we shall imagine the following example: Within Ludology, the consideration of ludologist has been attributed to Aarseth — who, incidentally, never used such a term in any of his works — and his closest followers — Eskelinen, Juul and Frasca himself. In this sense, it is essential to use them in the preliminary chapters with an interdisciplinary approach formulated by Analytical Philosophy, Language Philosophy, Narratology and various contributions from the field of Literature and Film Studies.

Non-narrative games are possible because not all games tell stories. Thus, these worlds are given their own intensional semantics that lets them have different types of characters, fl, spaces and temporality but that snklovski necessarily be associated with the ludological influence of game rules. The three remaining points are focused on the lack of anachronisms flashbacks and flash-forwards in the linear structure of the narrative and the impossibility of showing and influencing past events.

Recent decades have shown that exclusively rational discourse does not allow the shklocski of everything and the promise of a stabilized and secure world thanks to science is not possible. From this first approach, Julian Kucklichhas proposed a reinterpretation of the electronic game from syklovski semiotic perspectives of intratextuality, intertextuality and transtextuality, thus creating a typology of six possible worldspp.


It is man arge perceives good and evil — the least good, according to the Leibnizian God — and who chooses to transform this world into a space of more or less good things.

We must keep in mind that the contradiction of a fictional world must be analyzed intrinsically and not from referentiality except, logically, when the fictional world undermines the inter-world identity by distorting it. These researchers received the name ludologists and the new discipline, Ludology4.

Thus, while the stories create shklovskk histories, fiction makes way for semantic aggregation and significance.

Davidson de Oliveira Diniz. And, indeed, we can establish truth statements about non-real and non-existent beings and objects — or those with impossible existence — by removing ourselves from the strict modal statement, and thus entering the universe of fiction. Who is the real entity that Gandalf is based on, or Ignatius J. The final category suggested by Schaeffer moves away from deception and learning to delve into the idea of simulation, i. In this case, it creates an interpretative detour that, in the absence of a real entity, the mimetic theory attributes as a real universe: The Sims is a type of social game, in which a player, using a character, decides what job he will have or what furniture he will decorate his house with, including the type of relationships he will build with other sims.

First is Philosophy, the idea of possible worlds and conflicts with fiction. In this way, we consider that fiction, as ludic and shared pretense, must be located in a hybrid and integrated position between both stances. Video games, as objects that are produced a given social, cultural and economic framework, undergo a similar process of creation, consolidation and consumption, though they contain a few notable features Figure 3. This reduction is done to make the general scheme more operative and to not diffuse the central argument of this research.

Gottfried Leibniz and David Lewis.

From a Semantics of Fiction based on the Theory of Action p. Arcades3, coin- operated games located in recreation rooms, which experienced their golden age between andentailed an authentic revolution.


viktor shklovski el arte como artificio pdf writer

However, the hegemony of the argument soon declined upon the confirmation that, in reality, much of the artifkcio persuasion did not consist of the mere fictionalization of reality, but rather the intensive use of rhetoric focused on manipulation and deception: The singular approach of the American philosopher regarding the phenomenon of fictional worlds thus moves away from any ontological debate.

This rationalist concept of the possible distances Leibniz from the approaches of Descartes and Newton regarding physics and metaphysics. Finally, mimesis linked to the representation or creation of a mental or symbolic model based on its resemblance to reality. In the same way, Ryan — following the approach of Bordwell b — rejects the moderate version which speaks of a narrator in visual arts, even through the conception of an implicit figure: In this way, the American author positions herself between the extreme narrativism of Murray and the more reactionary ludological postulates6.

In addition, it involves a theory that establishes natural harmony with common sense by letting one talk naturally of fictional objects without conflicting with their ontological ties: So I ask you my friend, if your life were the prize, would you kill the innocent?

I’ll be really very grateful. In the same way that this work distinguishes rate hypertext and cybertext, it also distances itself from the approach of video games as narrative objects.

Así la vida desaparece transformándose en nada. La – Sistemas de representación de la realidad

In this way, characters like Hamlet inhabit alternative worlds to the possible, without needing to respond to the ontological requirements of our existence.

It is important to emphasize that the shaping of stories does not have to start with the linear logic of classic storytelling. If we start with the idea that nothingness does not exist, then evil does not exist — since it is the absence of good.

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