ENDOKRINES SYSTEM PDF

Title Page / Vorwort / Inhaltsverzeichnis. Elsner H. Elsner H.: Krebsentstehung und endokrines System. Basel, Karger, , pp I-VI (DOI/). Translation for ‘Endokrines System’ in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations. German-English Dictionary: Translation for endokrines System.

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Functions like digestion and urine production that are not critical to immediate survival slow down as blood vessels to these parts constrict.

In diabetes mellitus the pancreas produces insufficient insulin and glucose levels in the blood can increase to a dangerous level.

The production of this heat and its loss through the skin is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain which acts rather like a thermostat on an electric heater.

It does this by increasing the absorption of sodium ions Na- from the kidney tubules. This condition is known as shock. The nervous and endocrine systems both work together wystem bring about this adaptation.

“Endokrines System” in English

The adrenal glands are situated on the cranial surface of the kidneys see diagram Many inland soils in New Zealand contain almost no iodine so goitre can be common in stock when iodine supplements are not given. Loss of blood or body fluids leads to decreased blood volume and hence decreased blood pressure. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Retrieved from ” https: In rodents and rabbits, however, it is spread thinly through the mesentery and is sometimes difficult to see. As the amount of carbon endokfines in the blood increases the blood becomes more acidic and the pH decreases. Hormones are chemicals that are secreted by endocrine glands. Breathing is one of these mechanisms. It produces the hormone thyroxinewhich influences the rate of growth and development of young animals. Water is lost from the body by many routes see module 1.

Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Endocrine System – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Cells around the sperm producing ducts of the testis produce the hormone testosterone. The body achieves this stability by constantly monitoring the internal conditions and if they deviate from the norm initiating processes that bring them back to it. Again it is the hypothalamus that monitors the concentration of the blood and initiates the release of hormones from the posterior pituitary gland. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. These act on the kidney tubules to influence the amount of water and sodium ions absorbed from the fluid flowing along them.

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Bright light inhibits melatonin secretion Low level of melatonin in bright light makes one feel good and this increases fertility. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure that is attached by a stalk to the underside of the cerebrum of the brain see diagram The heat is distributed through the body by the blood and is lost mainly through the skin surface.

The pineal gland is found deep within the brain see diagram If mating occurs, other hormones stimulate the release of ova from the ovary of the female and a range of different hormones maintains pregnancy, delivery of the kittens and lactation.

Unlike exocrine glands see chapter 5endocrine glands have no ducts, but release their secretions directly into the blood system, which carries them throughout the body. Anatomy and Physiology of Animals. The normal pH of blood is in the range 7.

This hormone regulates the amount of glucose shstem the blood by increasing the rate at which glucose is converted to glycogen in the liver and the movement of glucose from the blood into cells. Adrenaline increases the amount of blood reaching them by causing their blood vessels to dilate and the heart to beat faster. This stimulates the development of the male reproductive system and the male sexual characteristics – generally larger body of male animals, mane in lions, tusks in boars, etc.

For example, although sytsem is carried to virtually every cell in the body, follicle stimulating hormone FSHreleased from the anterior pituitary glandendokrinfs acts on the follicle cells of endokrimes ovaries causing them to develop. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 12 Octoberat Another hormone, aldosterone, secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, also affects water balance indirectly.

High level of melatonin in dim light makes an animal tired and depressed and therefore causes low fertility endokrinnes animals. The animal will die unless a vet administers fluid or blood. The parathyroid glands are also found in the neck just behind the thyroid glands see diagram However, target cells are sensitive to subtle changes in hormone concentration and the endocrine system regulates processes by changing the rate of hormone secretion.

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It produces the hormone melatoninwhich influences the development of sexual maturity and the seasonality of breeding and hibernation. Much of the carbon dioxide produced by respiration in cells is carried in the blood as carbonic acid.

Faced with a perilous situation the animal endokrinfs to either fight or make a rapid escape. To do either shstem instant energy, particularly in the skeletal muscles. Fear and stress then activates the adrenal glands to secrete the hormone adrenaline which increases the heart and respiratory rates. Cells of the brain are particularly vulnerable.

In most animals the pancreas is an oblong, pinkish organ endokrinex lies in the first bend of the small intestine see diagram In general the nervous system responds rapidly to short-term changes by sending electrical impulses along nerves and the endocrine system brings about longer-term adaptations by sending out chemical messengers called hormones into the blood stream.

The main envokrines glands in the body are the pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroidand adrenal glandsthe pancreas, ovaries and testes. As mentioned in module 1. Biochemical reactions within the body are very sensitive to even small changes in acidity or alkalinity i. The anterior pituitary gland secretes hormones that regulate a wide range of activities in the body. The result is that the blood system sywtem to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to the cells, which stop functioning syshem and may die.

However, we now know that the pituitary gland is itself controlled by the hypothalamus. After moderate blood loss, several mechanisms come into play to increase blood pressure and make up blood volume. A nerve impulse travels rapidly and produces an almost instantaneous response but one that lasts only briefly.

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