The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is. A key based on cyst and juvenile characters is given for identification of 12 valid Heterodera species in the H. avenae group. A compendium providing the most. World distribution of the cereal-cyst nematode is herein reviewed. It is suggested that Heterodera avenae originated in Europe and has been widely.
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Support Center Support Center. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H. Cyst characters are most useful for separating species; these include shape, color, cyst wall pattern, fenestration, vulval slit length, and the posterior cone including presence or absence of bullae and underbridge.
Zigzag, rugose cuticular surface pattern.
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These then develop into either females or males and mating takes place. Close Find out more.
In temperate climates, the threshold levels for oats, wheat and barley are, respectively, 0. Agricultural practices such as fallowing and heferodera ploughing are also highly effective in reducing populations of H.
In Australia, chemical control was extensively used for instant results.
Vulval cones of cysts mainly occupied by hyaline vaginal structure. In the USA, H.
cereal cyst eelworm (Heterodera avenae)
Lateral field s about one-fourth as wide as body, with 4 incisures forming 3 bands; outer bands areolated. Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The tips of the rootlets appear bunched and slight swellings may be present at the point of cyst attachment. Gubernaculum simple, slightly curved. The fungi parasitize females on roots and sometimes destroy them completely or cause formation of smaller cysts.
Cephalids indistinct, anterior 1 to 2 and posterior 6 to 7 annules behind lip region. In Australia, a population of heyerodera eggs per g of soil is considered the threshold level for wheat.
A Key and Compendium to Species of the Heterodera avenae Group (Nematoda: Heteroderidae)
Go to Nemaplex Main Menu. Lateral field s with 4 incisures, outer bands usually areolated. No yellow phase as the maturing cyst changes from white to dark brown Franklin, In autumn-sown wheat in Australia, damage avfnae most severe following early start of the rainy season, attributed to increased juvenile emergence and mobility Meagher, avenze The bacterial parasites Pasteuria penetrans and Pasteuria sp.
Resistant plant cultivars are being developed in several breeding programs, e. Return to Heterodera Menu. Resistant plants allow penetration of second-stage juveniles but resist the development of females, thus inhibiting proliferation. Tail end usually twisted.
This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible. Crop rotation is effective – this species declines more rapidly in the hwterodera of a host than either G. Schmidt, Heterodera maior O. Hemizonid distinct, 2 to 3 annules long, usually 5 to 6 annules anterior to excretory pore, but occasionally only one or 2 annules anterior.
The natural population levels can be augmented by altering rotation systems and by introducing artificial inocula. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources: Wheat The leaves of heavily infected plants are reddish-yellow with thin and narrow leaf blades.
The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by jeterodera during dust storms. For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click.
Three-year rotations with non-host crops such as legumes greatly reduce nematode populations zvenae also benefit nitrogen-depleted soils.
Articles from Journal of Nematology are provided here courtesy of Society of Nematologists. However, fertilizer application at higher rates may also be responsible for increased numbers of cysts.
Adult lemon-shaped, with prominent neck and vulval cone. It is the seedlings of cereals that are most readily infected with this nematode and damaged roots are often invaded by soil-borne pathogens such as root and crown rots. Retrieved from ” https: The female is rounded and white and measures by micrometres.
Seminal roots are usually most affected. Articles from Journal of Nematology are provided here courtesy of Society of Nematologists. A chill factor may be involved in hatching; rate of hatch can be increased by cereal root exudates. Infested fields show uneven patches of stunted plants randomly distributed throughout the field.
Hence crop rotation, using non-host crops and control of grassy weeds, provides good control.