Classification: Taxonomic ranks under review (cf. Illustrated Guide to Protozoa, Allen Press). Protista (unicellular eukaryotes) Ciliophora (with cilia, nuclear . Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated protozoan that causes. “Ich” or “white spot disease.” This disease is a major prob- lem to aquarists and commercial fish. The name Ichthyophthirius multifilis translates to “fish louse with many children”, a title that fits well, as each parasite may produce more than a.

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Careful attention to management practices, such as quarantine and multiple treatments when outbreaks occur, will minimize economic loss from this disease. However, any factor that reduces immunity, such as changes in water temperature and quality, accelerate an outbreak of Ich in a sub-clinically infected fish.

CIR/FA Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (White Spot) Infections in Fish

Copper is another common and effective treatment for this parasite. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center. Severe infections rapidly lead to loss of condition and death.

Do not use chlorinated tap water, reverse osmosis water, or distilled water.

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First, formalin is a solution of formaldehyde gas dissolved in water, therefore use caution when adding it to the aquarium to avoid inhalation and skin and eye contact. This may include crowding, low dissolved oxygen, pollutants and moving.

Other abiotic factors can increase both fish and tadpole susceptibility ichthyophrhirius Ich. Theronts can resemble other parasites especially Tetrahymenaso if only this juvenile stage is seen, prepare a second slide and examine it closely for the trophont stage to confirm the diagnosis.

The most characteristic features of the mature trophont stage of the parasite are a continual rolling, amoeboid motion and a horseshoe-shaped nucleus, both of which are easily recognized during a microscopic examination of infected tissue.

This can occur in a day or less at warmer water temperatures. It is very easy to overdose with copper. Because copper sulfate is multifiliiz algaecide, its use may lead to severe oxygen depletions; therefore, emergency aeration should always be available. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Squirmidae FilipodiumPlatyproteum. Fish may show behaviour modifications such as congregating near water inlets, ‘flashing’, rubbing their body.


Formalin is not the ideal treatment for ponds, but it works well in tanks. Transport and handling multiffiliis cause newly multiifliis fish who may be asymptomatic carriers those with no obvious clinical signs to break with active disease, serving as a source of infection for other fish they may come in contact with.

Periodic flushing icgthyophthirius tanks and ponds with clean fresh water helps to reduce contamination levels.

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Cichlid showing the white spots characteristic of ich Scientific classification Domain: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an ectoparasite of freshwater fish which causes a disease commonly known as white spot diseaseor Ich.

For this multifjliis, nets, siphon hoses, and other equipment that have not been disinfected should not be shared between tanks, especially in a quarantine area. Market availability changes, these products are approved to treat external parasites on all species of fish at all life stages. The adult parasite moves slowly by tumbling. Engorged trophonts are liberated from ruptured pustules into the water column where they settle on convenient substrates or on the bottom.

How Ich kills fish is not exactly known, however observations give possible explanations. Amnesic shellfish poisoning Brevetoxin Ciguatera Diarrheal shellfish poisoning Fish kill Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning Paralytic shellfish poisoning Saxitoxin. New tropical fish should be quarantined for at least four weeks and cold-water fish for eight weeks.

Epidermal cells slough and are replaced by mucus-producing cells.

Although potassium permanganate is a good choice for many external fish parasites, the repeated treatments necessary in a short ichthyophhhirius of time make it a more dangerous choice for control of Ich. Chromerida Chromeraceae Chromera velia Vitrellaceae Vitrella brassicaformis.

This page has been accessed 13, times. Remove several “white spots” from an infected fish, then mount them on a microscope slide with a few drops of water and cover with glass. White spots should never be used as the only means of diagnosis because other diseases may have a similar appearance. The outer lay of gill cells may separate and result in loss of fluids, making the fish struggle to regulate water concentration in the body.


This means that the application of a single dose of a treatment will only kill theronts that have emerged from the tomont cyst and have not yet burrowed into the skin or gills of a host fish. As Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an obligate parasite, it is thought that its survival between outbreaks is through low-level infection in the population.

Ammonia, nitrite, or high levels of nitrate in water do not in themselves cause clinical cases of Ich. Despite its effectiveness against external protozoan infections, it is now considered an outdated medication due to its effects on beneficial bacteria, causing toxic ammonia and nitrite levels.

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Causes, Ichthyophthurius, and Prevention”. To do this testing, a glass coverslip can be lightly scraped down the slide of a fish in the direction of head to tail to remove some skin cells preferably with some of the white spots and mucus.

The concentration of copper sulfate to apply in freshwater is calculated by determining the total alkalinity of the water and dividing that number by Fish surviving mulitfiliis exhibit some protective immunity against subsequent infections.

For this reason, a minimum day quarantine period is recommended ichthyophhtirius new fish. Because of the covering by this epithelial tissue and mucus, the trophont stage is protected from chemical treatment. Stress can also bring about an outbreak in a fish population as it decreases the immune function of the host. Infected fish produce excess mucus to combat the irritation but many epidermal cells are destroyed and are sloughed. The sheer numbers of Ich organisms attached to the gills can mechanically block oxygen transfer.

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