Originally issued in and updated in and , this pioneering study of “small group” conflict and cooperation has long been out-of-print. It is now. His main contribution is known as Realistic Conflict Theory, and accounts for group . Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The Robbers Cave experiment (Vol. Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robbers Cave Experiment by Muzafer Sherif, O.J. Harvey, B. Jack White, William R. Hood, and Carolyn W. Sherif.
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Although in contrast to some still prevalent psychological theories e. In the summer of our first attempt was made at a [p. Some other major influences coming from psychology will be mentioned later.
These ratings were included to yield data relevant to our hypothesis concerning the nature of group stereotypes in the study and those of [p.
The boys developed an attachment to their groups throughout the first week of the camp, quickly establishing their own cultures and group norms, by doing various activities together like hiking, swimming, etc. Allport’s experiments which started around are illustrative of this point. An experimental investigation of negative and positive relationships between small informal groups through judgmental indices.
Therefore, going a step further, if it is shown that this common range cooperatio modal point are maintained by the individual in a subsequent session on a different day when he is alone, then we can say that the common range and modal point have become his own.
One of the objectives of concentrating on small group research should be attainment of valid generalizations which ibtergroup be applied, at least in their essentials, to any group and to the behavior of individual members. Miner, Principles of SociologyNew York: It was postulated that since estimates of future performance are coopwration special case of judgmental activity in which motivational factors are operative, the nature of relations between individuals positive or negative will be a factor in determining variations in the direction of these estimates.
Our fourth feature relates to the standardization of a set of norms.
SherifNew York: It is possible, therefore, to set up situations in which the appraisal or evaluation of a social situation will be reflected in the judgments and perceptions of the individual. In the coopedation sessions they arise within the more limited frame of reference consisting of the unstructured stimulus situation and special psychological conflicf and states of the individual; whereas in togetherness situations the norm is the product of all of these within the particular interaction situation.
After rpbbers delineating the problem, the next step was to devise an experimental situation which lacked objective anchorages or standards i. Experimental production of in-groups themselves with a hierarchical structure and set of norms intra-group relations. Sherif cpoperation his theory in one his most famous experiments, “The Robber’s Cave”. At the camp the groups were kept separate from each other and were encouraged to bond as two individual cabe through the pursuit of common goals that required co-operative discussion, planning and execution.
Another of the major instigators of the extraordinary volume of small group research stems from the practical concern of business and military agencies. Generalization and exposure time as related to autokinetic movement, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46, Such facts are referred to under the concept of perceptual selectivity. In the second session, two cliques with either positive or negative relationships with each other were brought to the situation together.
Such comparative results illustrate the value of starting first with due consideration of the sociocultural setting with its organization and values before generalizations are made about small groups functioning as parts of that setting cf.
The Robbers Cave Experiment: Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation
All judgments and perceptions take place within their appropriate frame of reference. This has been done in various experiments.
This inference was borne out first in a study showing that estimates of [p. Wesleyan University Press- Psychology – pages. However, the Robbers Cave study has been criticized on a number of issues.
For the first week stage 1the two groups of boys were separated and did not know about each other. There is a lot of evidence that cooperatiion people compete for scarce resources e.
The remaining chapters of this book give an account of its planning, execution, and findings. Groups in Harmony and TensionNew York: The first units along these lines dealt with interpersonal relations.
But convergence of judgments is not as marked as this when individuals first go through individual sessions and then participate in group sessions.
At the initial stage, some low status members proved themselves on a par with high status members, including the leader. The concept of levels holds a fairly obvious but invaluable check on the validity of research findings.
At the psychological level, then, the individual becomes a group member to the extent that he internalizes the major norms of the group, carries on the responsibilities, meets expectations for the position he occupies. In a later publication, in order to stress cases of objective determination of psychological processes, a chapter was devoted to the effects of technology and its decisive weight in determining social norms and practices, with numerous illustrations from various parts of the world.
The Robbers Cave Experiment: Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation – Muzafer Sherif – Google Books
In addition, subjects rated in-group and out-group members on 10 adjectival descriptions presented on a graphic scale. When this proposal was accepted, the experimenter took each group separately and at different times to a large recreation hall where he suggested turning the practice into a game, in which everyone took turns and made estimates of each others’ performance.
To formulate problems and hypotheses relating to one another the indications of the two sets of relevant findings, that is, from sociological and psychological research. At this time, several Rattlers made threatening remarks about what they would do if anybody from The Eagles bothered their flag. Therefore, when Moreno’s work appeared in this country in the mid-thirties presenting his sociometric technique for the study of interpersonal choices and reciprocities among individuals i. In tobbers last analysis, no interaction in groups, no standardized and shared norms.
If this can be established, the laboratory-type experiment coopdration be offered as a more precise and refined method of assessing the intregroup of interaction processes in group relations. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the editors of the Review for permission to reproduce this paper here in substantially the same form. Fuller accounts of these principles from the works of psychologists and their background may be found in M.
Another major influence in the development of small [p. Of the two groups, skill seemed to be of relatively greater importance in the group which achieved less stability and solidarity. In this famous experiment, The twenty-two boys in the study were unknown to each other and all from white middle-class backgrounds. Research Center for Group Dynamics, The result of intergroup contact in these conditions was [p.
American Sociological Review, 18, The Eagles burned the Rattler’s flag.