Persiapan Dasar Intubasi Sulit – Laringoskop berbagai ukuran – ETT berbagai ukuran – Introducer (stylet, elastic bougie) – Oral dan nasal. Detection of ETT malposition in a timely fashion is crucial in both elective and auskultasi untuk membedakan antara intubasi endotrakea dan endobronkial. Intubasi endotrakea adalah salah satu prosedur penting dan umum pita suara, sedangkan ujung distal ETT berada pada cm dari carina.
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Tracheal intubationusually simply referred to as intubationis the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea windpipe to maintain an open airway or to serve as a conduit through which to administer certain drugs. It is frequently performed in critically injured, ill, or anesthetized patients to facilitate ventilation of the lungs, including mechanical ventilationand to prevent the possibility of itnubasi or airway egt.
The most widely used route is orotracheal, in which an endotracheal tube is passed through the mouth and vocal apparatus into the trachea. In a nasotracheal procedure, an endotracheal tube is passed through the nose and vocal apparatus into the trachea.
Other methods of intubation involve surgery and include the cricothyrotomy used almost exclusively in emergency circumstances and the tracheotomyused primarily in situations where a prolonged need for airway support is anticipated.
Because it is an invasive and uncomfortable medical procedureintubation is usually performed intubaai administration of general anesthesia and a neuromuscular-blocking drug. It can however be performed in the awake patient with intybasi or topical anesthesia or in an emergency without any anesthesia at all.
Intubation is normally facilitated by using a conventional laryngoscopeflexible fiberoptic bronchoscopeor video laryngoscope to identify intubaei vocal cords and pass the tube between them into the trachea instead of into the esophagus. Other devices and intybasi may be used alternatively. Ibtubasi the trachea has been intubated, a balloon cuff is typically inflated just above the far end of the tube to help secure it in place, to prevent leakage of respiratory gases, and to protect the tracheobronchial tree from receiving undesirable material such as stomach acid.
The tube is then secured to the face or neck and connected to a T-piece, anesthesia breathing circuit, bag valve mask device, or a mechanical ventilator. For centuries, tracheotomy intubaasi considered the only reliable method for intubation of the trachea. However, because only a minority of patients survived the operation, physicians undertook tracheotomy only as a last resort, on patients who were nearly dead.
It was not until the late 19th century however that advances in understanding of anatomy and physiologyas well an appreciation of the germ theory of disease intubwsi, had improved the outcome of this operation to the point that it could be considered an acceptable treatment option.
Also at that time, advances intubaai endoscopic instrumentation had improved to such a degree that direct laryngoscopy had become a viable means to secure the airway by the non-surgical orotracheal route. By the midth century, the tracheotomy as well as endoscopy and non-surgical tracheal intubation had evolved from rarely employed procedures to becoming essential components of the practices of anesthesiologycritical care medicineemergency medicineand laryngology.
Tracheal intubation can be associated with minor complications such as broken teeth or lacerations of the tissues of the upper airway.
It can also be associated with potentially fatal complications such as pulmonary aspiration of stomach contents which can result in a severe and sometimes fatal chemical aspiration pneumonitisor unrecognized intubation of the esophagus which can lead to potentially fatal anoxia. Because of this, the potential for difficulty or complications inntubasi to the presence of unusual airway anatomy or other uncontrolled variables is carefully evaluated before undertaking tracheal intubation.
Alternative strategies for securing the airway must always be readily available. Tracheal intubation is indicated in a variety of situations when illness or a medical procedure prevents a person from maintaining a clear airway, breathing, and oxygenating the blood.
In these circumstances, oxygen supplementation using a simple face mask is inadequate. Perhaps the most common indication for tracheal intubation is for the placement of a conduit through which nitrous oxide or volatile anesthetics may be administered.
General anesthetic agentsopioidsand neuromuscular-blocking drugs may diminish or even abolish the respiratory drive. Although it is not the only means to maintain a patent airway during general anesthesia, intubation of the trachea provides the most reliable means of oxygenation and ventilation  and the greatest degree of protection against regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. Damage to the brain such as from a massive strokenon-penetrating head injuryintoxication or poisoning may result in a depressed level of consciousness.
When this becomes severe to the point of stupor or coma defined as a score on the Glasgow Coma Scale of less than 8 dynamic collapse of the extrinsic muscles of the airway can obstruct the airway, impeding the free flow of air into the lungs. Furthermore, protective airway reflexes such as coughing and swallowing may be diminished or absent. Tracheal intubation is often required to restore patency the relative absence of blockage of the airway and protect the tracheobronchial tree from pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents.
Intubation may be necessary for a patient with decreased oxygen content and oxygen saturation of the blood caused when their breathing is inadequate hypoventilationsuspended apneaor when the lungs are unable to sufficiently transfer gasses to the blood. Such patients, who may be awake and alert, are typically critically ill with a multisystem disease or multiple severe injuries.
Regardless of the laboratory values, these guidelines are always interpreted in the clinical context. Actual or impending airway obstruction is a common indication for intubation of the trachea.
Life-threatening airway obstruction may occur when a foreign body becomes lodged in the airway; this is especially common in infants and toddlers.
Severe blunt or penetrating injury to the face or neck may be accompanied by swelling and an expanding hematomaor injury to the larynx, trachea or bronchi. Airway obstruction is also common in people who have suffered smoke inhalation or burns within or near the airway or epiglottitis. Sustained generalized seizure activity and angioedema are other common causes of life-threatening airway intubasl which may require tracheal intubation to secure the airway.
Diagnostic or therapeutic manipulation of the airway such as bronchoscopy, laser therapy or stenting of the bronchi may intermittently interfere with the ability to breathe; intubation may be necessary in such situations.
The vast majority of tracheal intubations involve the use of a viewing instrument of one type or another. The modern conventional laryngoscope consists of a handle containing batteries that power a light and a set of interchangeable bladeswhich are either straight or curved. This device is designed to allow the laryngoscopist to directly view the larynx. Due to the widespread availability of such devices, the technique of blind intubation  of the trachea is rarely practiced today, although it may still be useful in certain emergency situations, such as natural or man-made disasters.
For example, digital intubation may be used by a paramedic if the patient is entrapped in an inverted position in a vehicle after a motor vehicle collision with a prolonged extrication time. The decision to use a straight or curved laryngoscope blade depends partly on the specific anatomical features of the airway, and partly on the personal experience and preference of the laryngoscopist.
The Macintosh blade is the most widely used curved laryngoscope blade,  while the Miller blade  is the most popular style of straight blade. There are many other styles of straight and curved blades, with accessories such as mirrors for enlarging the field of view and even ports for the administration of oxygen.
These specialty blades are primarily designed for use by anesthetists and otolaryngologistsmost commonly in the operating room. Fiberoptic laryngoscopes have become increasingly available since the s. In contrast to the conventional laryngoscope, these devices allow the laryngoscopist to indirectly view the larynx. This provides a significant advantage in situations where the operator needs to see around an acute bend in order to visualize the glottis, and deal with otherwise difficult intubations.
Video laryngoscopes are specialized fiberoptic laryngoscopes that use a digital video camera sensor to allow the operator to view the glottis and larynx on a video monitor. An intubating stylet is a malleable metal wire designed to be inserted into the endotracheal tube to make the tube conform better to the upper airway anatomy of the specific individual. This aid is commonly used with a difficult laryngoscopy.
Tracheal intubation – Wikipedia
The Eschmann tracheal tube introducer often incorrectly referred to as a “gum elastic bougie” is specialized type of stylet used to facilitate difficult intubation. Unlike a traditional intubating stylet, the Inntubasi tracheal tube introducer is typically inserted directly into the trachea and then used as a guide over which the endotracheal tube can be passed in a manner analogous to the Seldinger technique. As the Eschmann tracheal tube introducer is considerably less infubasi than a conventional stylet, this technique is considered to be a intjbasi atraumatic means of tracheal intubation.
It is also possible to connect the catheter to a capnograph to perform respiratory monitoring. The lighted stylet is a device that employs the principle of transillumination to facilitate blind orotracheal intubation an intubation technique in which the laryngoscopist does not view the glottis. A tracheal tube is a catheter that is inserted into the trachea for the primary purpose of establishing and maintaining a patent open and unobstructed airway.
Tracheal tubes are frequently used for intbasi management in the settings of general anesthesia, critical care, mechanical ventilation and emergency medicine.
Many different types ettt tracheal tubes are available, suited for different specific applications. An endotracheal tube is intubasii specific type of tracheal tube that is nearly always inserted through the mouth orotracheal or nose nasotracheal. It is a breathing conduit designed to be placed into the airway of critically injured, ill or anesthetized patients in order to perform mechanical positive pressure ventilation of the lungs and to prevent the possibility of aspiration or airway obstruction.
At the other end is an orifice through which such gases are directed into the lungs and may also include a balloon referred to as a cuff. The tip of the endotracheal tube is positioned above the carina before the trachea divides to each lung and sealed within the trachea so that the lungs can be ventilated equally.
Tracheal tubes can be used to ensure the adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxideto deliver oxygen in higher concentrations than found in air, or to administer other gases such as helium nitric oxide nitrous oxide, xenon or certain volatile anesthetic agents such as desfluraneisofluraneor sevoflurane. They may also be used as a route for administration of certain medications such as bronchodilatorsinhaled corticosteroidsand drugs used in treating cardiac arrest such as atropineepinephrinelidocaine and vasopressin.
Originally made from latex rubber most modern endotracheal tubes today are constructed of polyvinyl chloride. Tubes constructed of silicone rubberwire-reinforced silicone rubber or stainless steel are also available for special applications. For human use, tubes range in size from 2 to The size is chosen based on the patient’s body size, with the infubasi sizes being used for infants and children.
Most endotracheal tubes have an inflatable cuff to seal the tracheobronchial tree against leakage of respiratory gases and pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents, blood, secretions and other fluids. Uncuffed tubes are also available, though their use is limited mostly to children in small children, the cricoid cartilage is ety narrowest portion of the airway and usually provides an adequate seal for mechanical ventilation.
In addition to cuffed or uncuffed, preformed endotracheal tubes are also available.
The oral and nasal RAE tubes named after the inventors Ring, Adair lntubasi Elwyn are the most widely used of the preformed tubes.
There are a number of kntubasi types of double-lumen endo-bronchial tubes that have endobronchial as well as endotracheal channels Carlens, White and Robertshaw tubes. These tubes are typically coaxialwith two separate channels and two separate openings. There is also the Univent tube, which has a single tracheal lumen and an integrated endobronchial blocker. These tubes enable one to ventilate both lungs, or either lung independently. Single-lung ventilation allowing the lung on the operative side to collapse can be useful during thoracic surgeryas it can facilitate the surgeon’s view and access to other relevant structures within the thoracic cavity.
The “armored” endotracheal tubes are cuffed, wire-reinforced silicone rubber tubes. They are much more flexible than polyvinyl chloride tubes, yet they are difficult to compress or kink.
This can make them useful for situations in which the trachea is anticipated to remain intubated for a prolonged duration, or if the neck is to remain flexed during ett. Most armored tubes have a Magill curve, but preformed armored RAE tubes are also available. Another type of itnubasi tube has four small openings just above the inflatable cuff, which can be used for suction of the trachea or administration of intratracheal medications if necessary.
Other tubes such as the Bivona Fome-Cuf tube are designed specifically for use in laser surgery in and around the airway.
Accordingly, the use of multiple methods for confirmation of correct tube placement is now widely considered to be the standard of care. With a properly positioned tracheal tube, equal bilateral breath sounds will be heard upon listening to the chest with a stethoscope, and no sound upon listening to the area over the stomach.
Equal bilateral rise and fall of the chest wall iintubasi be evident with ventilatory excursions.
A small amount of water vapor will also be evident within the lumen of the tube with each exhalation and there will be no gastric contents in the tracheal tube at any time. Ideally, at least one of the methods utilized for confirming tracheal tube placement will be a measuring instrument. Waveform capnography has emerged as the gold standard for the confirmation of tube placement within the trachea. Other methods relying on instruments include the use of a colorimetric end-tidal carbon dioxide detector, a self-inflating esophageal bulb, or an esophageal detection device.
If it is inserted too far into the trachea beyond the carinathe tip of the tracheal tube is likely to be within the right main bronchus — a situation often referred to as a “right mainstem intubation”. Tracheal intubation in the emergency setting can be difficult with the fiberoptic bronchoscope due to blood, vomit, or secretions in the airway and poor patient cooperation.
Because of this, patients with massive facial injury, complete upper airway obstruction, severely diminished ventilation, or profuse upper airway bleeding are poor candidates for fiberoptic intubation. Personnel experienced in direct laryngoscopy are not always immediately available in certain settings that require intunasi tracheal intubation. For this intubai, specialized devices have been designed to act as bridges to a definitive airway.
Such devices include the laryngeal mask airway, cuffed oropharyngeal airway and the esophageal-tracheal combitube Combitube.