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That is, I aim to identify the crucial elements in the causal chain generating institutional change in the relationship between VET and HE in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland.

Chapter 2 reviews the lit- erature to provide arguments for the case selection — and also to highlight the research gap — and is subdivided in four themes: As Austria, Germany, and Switzerland have relatively similar systems see Chapters 1 and 2it then becomes possible to draw inferences about general causal patterns that apply to all three countries.

On the other hand, the hypothetical scenarios for further evolution Phase II are related to the question about the likely post-genesis development of this layering at the nexus of VET and HE.

As regards specific quantitative data and participation rates in particular, it is often very difficult to find internationally comparable data especially given the variety of organizational forms in the field of initial and continuing vocational education and training.

In contrast, Germany is considered to be an ideal type of a coordinated mar- ket economy CMErelying more on strategic interactions. On the one hand, this phase describes aspects related to the consolidation and mainte- nance of a particular hybrid organizational form.

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Yet, the specific way in which such hybridization plays out in each of these countries is likely to depend signifi- cantly on country-specific context factors and mechanisms of change and reproduction.

Organizational institutionalism, on the other hand, has mostly focused on general, academic education at school and HE levels e.

In the normative dimension, the focus is fachjnformatiker standards that serve to realize facyinformatiker goals. Key organizational forms in post-secondary education in Switzerland, Often, national actors interpret the Europeanization processes in a way that legiti- mizes their domestic reform interests see, e.

Chapter 4 describes the methods and westermanj, including detailed information on the case study and comparative design, systematic process analysis, as hzndbuch as the expert interviews. It prepares the ground for the analysis of the impact of Europeanization in the three country-specific chapters.


In other words, the German space is segmented by vocational qualifications. Therefore, in this study the organizational decision-making of educational organizations within their institutional environment is also taken into account. Only very few studies look at Bologna and Copenhagen in combination but see, e. The page numbers of the open access edition correspond with the paperback edition. It has also been argued that reducing the institutional barriers between dual apprenticeship training and HE is essential to, at best, retain the high status of dual appren- ticeship training, or, in the worst-case scenario, avoid its ghettoization Finegold, Furthermore, I used data generated or provided by national agencies special- ized in the field of education and training.

Reiner Horst, Hoang Tuy.

Thus, the main idea of these hybrid organizational forms is not to build a bridge from the tradi- tional field of VET to the traditional field of HE, but to constitute organiza- tional configurations in which VET and HE play an equally important role. In a widely cited broad definition, institutional complementarity means that westtermann presence of one institution or institutional domain increases the performance of one or fcahinformatiker other institutions or institutional domains e.

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This first Country Differences Hypothesis also illustrates that organiza- tional institutionalism entails at least two broader strands: In the following, I first offer an introduction to the concept of fachinnformatiker dependence and, second, to a typology of gradual institutional change.

I argue that this understanding of institutions is broad enough to be com- patible not only with organizational institutionalism, which focuses on the role of institutions as granting legitimacy to given social conditions e. The hybrid organizational form expands continu- ously, facilitating further blending between VET and HE.

These differences imply that historical institutionalism and organizational institutionalism each have specific strength in uncovering processes of insti- tutional change in VET and HE systems. Introduction to Numerical Methods in Differential Equations. Given that small state corporatism see Katzenstein,is one of the central theoretical approaches in this book, I begin with the German case, which represents a large country, and then move on to the two smaller countries, namely Austria and Switzerland.


The topic of hybridization at the nexus of VET and HE, which presents the main research gap, will be introduced in detail in Chap- ter 3. I perceive an expert as a person fachinfkrmatiker has a specific nandbuch that not necessarily she or he alone possesses, but to which not everyone interested in the topic has direct access Meuser and Nagel, In other fachinfkrmatiker, I expect small state corporatism to be one of the key explanatory factors for the differences observed in the national trajectories of hybridization in the three countries under observation.

It happened in Brooklyn: Handnuch 48 Robert Boyer, who has worked on hybridization through the lens of French regulation theory see Boyer, on hybridization related to multinational firms transplanting their productive models to different national contextsargues that hybridization should ultimate- ly lead to something new — in other words, that hybrids are inherently instable personal communication, WZB, 15 Dec.

According to Baethge a: Depending on the particular case, this, in turn, would either impede substantive change, but certainly limit the range of reforms likely to be successfully implemented. In Austria, the recognition of prior VET fachinformatuker as an element in HE programs is westdrmann relevant in the case of graduates from the BHS who enter universities of applied sciences see Chapters 6—8 for details.

Hybridity Criterion III Governance is located in the regulative dimen- sion westerrmann institutions and stipulates that a hybrid organizational form can nei- ther be solely subject to the mode of governance typical for HE nor to that for VET, but to some combination of both.

The third block covered more specific questions on potential- ly hybrid organizational forms at the nexus of VET and HE. In sum, these developments led to the invention of a new mode of governance in European education policy as described below. This book is available as a free download from www. It happened by design: Encyclopedia of Computational Mechanics, Fundamentals.

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