ABSTRACT. Background: The dengue and chikungunya epidemics have major challenging problems and have become essentially a public health importance. The Chikungunya virus was isolated from mosquitoes and found to be identical to the AV circulating human strain. This is the first field study. Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya is a re-emerging arthropod-borne.

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The J Infect Dis. A relationship between some of the more unusual disease manifestations described above and presence of underlying comorbidities at the time of initial infection has been described in up to Preventive measures focus on the mosquito vector and include recommendations such as wearing long sleeves, making use of mosquito nets, elimination of mosquito breeding sites and use of insecticides [ 9 ]. Effectiveness of chloroquine and inflammatory cytokine response in patients with early persistent musculoskeletal pain and arthritis following chikungunya virus infection.

Manifestasi Klinis Infeksi Virus Chikungunya Pada Kejadian Luar Biasa Di Indonesia – Neliti

In some cases, MRI demonstrated clear improvement in severity of joint swelling, chilungunya pain and tendon involvement continuing for 15 months after initiation [ 41 jurjal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. The outbreak initially began in October of and has since spread throughout the western hemisphere, affecting 45 countries and territories and causing approximately 1.

Chikungunya virus-associated long-term arthralgia: Numerous risk factors for development of severe disease in adult patients have been reported including age and gender [ 929 ]. In support of the former, virus has been demonstrated within muscle satellite cells 3 months after resolution of the acute phase of disease and in synovial tissues 18 months after initial infection [ 1036 ].

The efficacies of specific antiviral medications are also unknown, though in vitro studies have demonstrated potential utility of ribavirin against alphaviruses [ 10 ]. These findings suggest that continued immune stimulation could play a role in some cases of prolonged CHIKV-associated arthritis.

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While there is an association between initial CHIKV infection and chronic disease, a causal relationship has not been established at this time. While corticosteroid treatments are usually not recommended due cuikungunya the potential for a severe rebound of arthritis and tenosynovitis after therapy is ended, in severe cases of inflammatory polyarthritis refractory to NSAID treatment, the benefits may outweigh the risks [ 61 ].

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The potential mechanisms associated with chronic CHIKV-associated joint disease are unknown, and no animal model currently replicates this aspect of disease.

Manifestasi Klinis Infeksi Virus Chikungunya Pada Kejadian Luar Biasa Di Indonesia

Extensive work focusing on the acute stages of CHIKV infection and utilizing animal models has enhanced our current understanding of these early timepoints of disease. Suspected Chikungunya are interviewed and taken blood. However, in a wide range of cases 1.

By utilizing advanced imaging techniques, particularly MRI, it will be possible to perform a more thorough evaluation of potentially affected joints and associated soft tissues in CHIKV patients with acute disease.

Currently, in all available reports, pre-existing joint disease or chioungunya of an unrelated joint disease such as OA or RA cannot be ruled out. Clinical Evaluation via Advanced Imaging Much of the current literature focuses on the use of standard radiography for evaluation of joints in CHIKV-infected patients and results are often variable [ 924354041 ].

Additionally, it is possible that some patients develop joint disease such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, completely unrelated to the previous CHIKV infection. Because of the high viremia associated with disease see Blood jurnwl Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Results belowreverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR or virus isolation utilizing cell culture or animal inoculation can be performed during the acute stage, but is only useful at 1 to 2 weeks post-infection [ 1046 ].


Othernon-specific clinical symptomssuch asheadaches Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and long-term outcomes of a major outbreak of juurnal in a hamlet in sri lanka, in Potential causes of chronic CHIKV-induced arthritis have been postulated, including viral persistence, induction of autoimmune disease, and exacerbation of pre-existing joint disease. Unfortunately, most of these studies do not specifically correlate cytokine profiles with joint manifestations, though Rulli et al.

Most rely on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDswhose efficacy can be quite variable, and resolution of acute arthralgia can occur with or without their use [ 2738 ]. Some significant bony changes, such as obvious erosions, can be seen by months post infection p. Because the acute presentation of CHIKV-associated disease as visualized by MRI is currently unknown, it is possible that scans performed at early timepoints will provide only minimal information in regard to chikunguunya status, or that the acute presentation will be variable among patients and therefore the interpretation of results challenging.

The objective of this study was to compare the spatial-temporal pattern between chikungunya fever outbreak and dengue hemorrhagic fever incidence.

Majalah Kedokteran Nusantara (Journal of Medical School)

Immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine: Alphavirus RNA synthesis and non-structural protein functions. Those that have been reported describe vascular proliferation, perivascular macrophages, and synovial hyperplasia [ 37 ].

If received prior to infection, viremia and virus levels in ankles were decreased to below the level of detection, however, when administered after infection, though viremia decreased, there were no effects on the levels of viral RNA in the inoculated foot [ 4 ].

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