Keratoconus, the most common corneal ectasia, is a progressive corneal Figure 8. Keratoconus on Pentacam. The anterior axial map shows. To assess the effect of age on elevation and pachymetric Pentacam keratoconus (KC) detection indices, and the need to adjust normative. Dr. Holladay says the changes ac-companying keratoconus are According to Dr. Holladay, the Pentacam, Galilei and Visante Omni all pick.

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White blood cell recruitment red circle is evident in the anterior stroma directly adjacent to both Acanthamoeba cysts white arrow and fungal elements red box. The patient’s refractive error is approximated using both the autorefraction REF and wavefront WF measurements, and this refraction estimate is available in the auto-refraction window of the NIDEK report.

Densitometry measurement estimates corneal clarity; any value greater than 30 may indicate decreased corneal clarity.

Journal of Ophthalmology

Similar to the NIDEK report, the Pentacam report includes an axial map that depicts the curvature of the anterior corneal surface in dioptric values for each point. But in many cases, the signs indicating early corneal disease are subtle and ambiguous. The axial curvature map, also known as a sagittal map, depicts the curvature of the anterior corneal surface in dioptric values for each point.

Confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to help rapidly identify the causative agent in vivosuch as fungi or Acanthamoebaso appropriate treatment can be initiated.

This is a retrospective study including 95 consecutive myopic normal corneas imaged in the time interval between Keratocconus and Decemberusing the Pentacam branded as Allegro Oculyzer WaveLight, GmbH, Erlangen, Germany [ 12 ] with software version 1. The Universal Standard Scale: Anterior segment optical coherence tomography AS-OCT produces high-resolution imaging of the cornea, iris, and anterior chamber e.

AS-OCT is a useful adjunct to slit lamp examination for the assessment of endothelial graft adherence during the immediate postoperative period. Correlation of age with other indices, partial correlation with SE after controlling for age effect, and partial correlation with age after controlling for SE effect.


However, their study included a heterogeneous group of patients with KC and forme fruste KC together with healthy subjects. Moreover, the spherical refractive error effect on tomographic corneal values is an issue that deserves proper analysis.

Keratoconus often starts to develop at the age of puberty as a corneal ectatic disorder. However, the aforementioned indices do not negate the importance of widely recognized and acceptable indices like keratometry and central corneal thickness.

These devices may allow better screening of patients for prospective refractive surgery. Tomography not only measures the front surface curvature, but the posterior surface curvature and corneal pachymetry as well.


Penetrating keratoplasty has a high success rate and is the standard surgical treatament with a long track record of safety and efficacy.

Surgical options can include: The keratoconue curvature map shows against-the-rule corneal astigmatism with more plus power in the horizontal meridian.

Confocal microscopy showing normal corneal endothelium. For a refractive surgeon, identifying pentqcam keratoconus is obviously crucial for protecting both the patient and the surgeon keragoconus serious postop trouble.

Confocal microscopy can help quantify pathology of the subbasal nerve plexus in patients with neurotrophic keratopathy and diabetic neuropathy involving the cornea. If the corneal shape is abnormal—for example, if we find inferior steepening that mimics keratoconus but is actually contact lens warpage—we ask patients to keep their lenses out and come back in two to three weeks, until the topography normalizes.

Abstract Purpose To determine pachymetric, aberrometric, and topometric indices in patients kerattoconus definite and subclinical keratoconus and the validity of these indices in the diagnosis of keratoconus. In terms of technology, devices using Scheimpflug imaging may be advantageous. This allows the physician to determine if cross linking is indicated.


Ultrasound pachymetry wnd also be used to measure the thinnest zone on the cornea. Results We selected keratoconus patients from the list of the patients visited in the keratoconus clinic and healthy controls who were candidates of refractive surgery with no previous history of ocular surgery and no abnormal topographic pattern.


The following strategies may help you make the tough calls in day-to-day practice: Ophthalmology is a rapidly advancing field with new technology for diagnosis and treatment being developed and implemented each year.

Elevation-based indices were the parameters that showed a statistically significant difference across studied age groups. Keratoocnus not, the cornea will be the same, or thicker below. Example of Early Keratoconus as evidenced on a Placido-disc based topographic evaluation. With progressive keratoconus, inferior steepening can ultimately develop. The FDA trial and most European data sets demonstrate the high success rate for the conventional epithelium-off cross linking approach. Table 3 Logistic regression model of determinant factors for diagnosis of subclinical keratoconus cases.

Page Discussion View form View source History. After keratoplasty, corneal astigmatism can be evaluated with topography. Confocal microscopy imaging of the various corneal layers using laser-scanning in vivo confocal keratoconks. A symmetric bow tie is normal, regular corneal astigmatism. If a patient does not gain the expected results, the INTACS can be removed and then other surgical options can be considered.

For example, if someone has penntacam intraocular pressure of 9 mmHg in both eyes, we’d think little of it.

Catching Keratoconus: Making the Tough Calls

Most penracam still require vision correction with spectacles or contact lenses, and often hard or gas permeable lenses are required if high levels of astigmatismare present. Klyce notes that in some situations tomography is more advantageous for measuring the topographic component. Most of the topographic screening values were initially based on a predominantly myopic population [ 11 ], rendering it obviously inaccurate to apply the normative values on the hyperopic population, as emphasized in Kim et al.


However, in other studies, including Kim et al. Ageing can alter the human corneal topography, with a detected increase in aberrations [ 8 ] and an altered pattern of corneal astigmatism [ 9 ].

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