The Norwegian government presented the white paper on climate efforts ( klimameldingen) on the 26th of April The white paper builds on. ‘s governmental white paper (klimamelding) and its attendant parliamentary agreement largely extended existing initiatives, such as heightening energy. Klimaforliket fra er det folkelige navnet på Stortingets Energi- og miljøkomité sin innstilling (Innst. S (–)) ved behandling av klimameldingen.
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Alt om klimameldingen og klimaforliket –
Hide metadata Including learning in cost-benefit analyses of renewable energy technology dc. Including learning in cost-benefit analyses of renewable energy technology. Estimates suggest that the global average temperature has increased with 0,75oC since and that it will continue to rise somewhere in the range of 1,1 and 6,4oC from to NOU, According to the Stern Reviewthe increase of the average temperature level may cause severe impacts on social and economic activity.
The unambiguous conclusion of the klimamldingen is that the benefits of immediate action outweigh the future costs of ignoring the development.
It is emphasized both in the Stern Review and by the IPCC that technological innovation and advancements are essential in order to reduce emissions of climate gases.
This concerns both abatement technology and renewable energy technology. As expressed by the IPCC: Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century.
Klimats un ilgtspējīga attīstība
Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transform current energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. IPCC,front page National governments koimameldingen supranational institutions have initiated measures supporting emerging renewable energy technology. In the European Union implemented the Renewable Energy Directive, which was replaced by a more comprehensive version in klimamelvingen The intention is to reduce emissions of climate gasses, make member countries less dependent on imported energy and encourage technological innovation in the renewable energy industry.
The Norwegian government presented the white paper on climate efforts klimameldingen on the 26th of April One of the measures stated in the white paper is klimameleingen creation of a fund for climate, renewable energy and energy transformation. The Renewable Energy Directive has been implemented klimame,dingen Norway, but as is noted in the white paper Mld. However, it is also noted that the potential for further renewable energy development in Norway is significant and that there could be environmental benefits in increasing the renewable energy production.
Specifically, it is pointed out that increasing the power surplus in Norway and the export of electricity from renewable energy sources may suppress production and thereby emissions from gas power and energy produced by combustion of fossil fuels in the importing countries. Furthermore, this increase in exports could back up renewable energy projects in other countries. On the hand, increased klimamelcingen production could increase consumption equivalently or reduce quota prices and thereby also the incentives to invest in green technologies.
Piemērošanās klimata pārmaiņām Eiropā: Literatūra
However, it is assumed that the effects on the quota prices would be limited given the size of the Norwegian energy production. In practice, green energy projects concerning onshore and offshore wind power, hydropower, solar power etc.
The most common form of analysis performed to evaluate such projects is cost-benefit analyses Klimameldingeen. Whenever the socio-economic benefits of a project outweigh the costs, the project is deemed welfare enhancing and granted a licence, and the application is denied when not. However, regarding green technology projects, standard CBAs do not quantify and include one particular type of benefits: In this thesis an klinameldingen is made of calculating and including learning effects in a CBA of a green energy project.
In the first chapter a general presentation of cost-benefit analyses is provided. Main elements and considerations will be described, in addition to some criticism and practical shortcomings of this type of analysis.
A presentation of the concept of learning curves is klimameldnigen in chapter two. This learning effect is present in most production processes, but has important implications regarding green technologies when a certain degree of spillover is assumed, as noted above.
Specifically, it will be argued that two market failures in the market for green technologies reduce the incentives klimameldignen invest in emerging green technologies, these being the positive learning externality and a negative environmental externality generated in the production of substitutes.
Presented in chapter three is a simple model of learning based on the learning curve methodology and optimal 2102 theory. The model is of a global market for electricity which includes the market failures discussed in the previous chapter.
In this model, the value of learning is set as the shadow price on the accumulated production, reflecting the increase in klimamepdingen present value of welfare when the accumulated production klimamelvingen marginally. An analytical expression for the value of learning generated in the production of green energy will be derived.
The optimal regulation is then analyzed in different scenarios and it will be discussed whether or not other policy rationales apply to green technologies compared to other innovations. Finally, a cost- benefit analysis of the Norwegian offshore wind power project Havsul I is performed in chapter four.
Here the outcome of the analysis when learning is ignored and when learning is included will be compared. By applying the expression for the value of learning from the theoretical model it will be estimated how large the value of learning generated by the Havsul project will be.
Given the model specification and the underlying assumptions, it is demonstrated that the Havsul project is estimated to yield a negative net present value in the cost-benefit analysis when socio-economic benefits from spillover of learning are ignored. However, the inclusion of value of learning in the cost-benefit analysis yields the opposite result, rendering the project a welfare enhancing undertaking.
Search all of DUO. Masteroppgave, University of Oslo, Over the last decade or so there has been a growing consensus that the climate change is a real problem.