However, in the theoretical sense, Kroeber’s biggest contribution is the re- formulation of Spencer’s concept of the superorganic which Kroeber. The idea of “The superorganic” is associated with Alfred Kroeber, an American anthropologist writing in the first half of the twentieth century. A. L. KROEBER. University of California. Search for more papers by this author. First published: April‐June

Author: Grojas Milkis
Country: Togo
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Photos
Published (Last): 17 August 2006
Pages: 411
PDF File Size: 4.73 Mb
ePub File Size: 3.85 Mb
ISBN: 982-4-99861-571-1
Downloads: 37175
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Yozshuzshura

This preoccupation was reinforced by, but antedated, the development of such basic units as phonemes and morphemes in linguistics. Analogies, particularly at a conceptual level, are not evidence of borrowing. The methods he utilized, the kinds of problems he was most interested in, and the explanatory principles he developed were all strongly conditioned by his historical bent, his familiarity with biology, and his humanistic training.

A botanist will not infer the relative age of pines and grasses from their distribution; the anthropologist must not compare textile arts with a religious cult. Most important, however, was his lifelong curiosity about new fields, new approaches, and new problems. For his early education he was supeerorganico by Dr. Humans have thoughts and behaviour.

Kroeber, Alfred L. |

Please feel free to share it widely, including dumping it in whatever archive works for you. These peaks are characterized by the emergence of large numbers of exceptional kroebet. Each he suggested has varying modalities of change and may have an independent history. All living things, plants and animals, are built up of inorganic elements, mainly hydrogen, oxygen and carbon, plus some trace elements.


Savage Minds

Kroeber to Culture Area Theory and Practice. For a complete bibliography, see Stewardpp.

With regard to isolated peoples, each South American country has its own unique and varied history with regards to indigenous peoples and their rights, and these varied historical policies directly affect their approach to the specific case of isolated peoples. It may have a life of its own, but its life more superoragnico an amoeba than a human.

In both anthropology and biology geographical continuity of distribution strengthens the case for diffusion, and their age—area interpretations are subject to restraints. The superorganic is another way of describing —— and understanding —— culture or the socio-cultural system. Now to the meat of the paper itself: At the same time he pioneered studies of dialect surveys among aboriginal American Indians, publishing significant material as early as and His major use of the term was in his analysis of Peruvian art styles The milieu was the upper-middleclass German environment of New York City in the late nineteenth century, in which liberal intellectual interests and a deep concern with literature, music, and art were taken for granted.

In part this was because he perceived no significant historical depth in the archeological record. Uhle had suggested chronological depth for his materials.

Kroeber begins the essay by asking the question: And where documentary or archeological evidence was lacking or inadequate, Kroeber relied heavily on historical inference or reconstruction based primarily on distributional data. Degeneration or simplification and the relative stability of elements through time and space also may be relevant. As an ethnographer Kroeber was thorough and showed great ability in establishing field rapport. Yet he had no such qualms about isolating culture traits in his comparative studies or identifying complexes for cross-cultural studies.


The links are symbolic, not genetic as in biological systems. Those are carried by individuals.

He played an important role in organizing the International Symposium on Anthropology and he organized the Conference on Anthropological Horizons, both sponsored by the Wenner—Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. Kroeber was particularistic also in his search for basic cultural units of study.

These patterned phenomena he related to other aspects of culture and suggested that certain suprrorganico and repetitive configurations of growth and change may be identified.

These, in conjunction with the trait lists, provide a rich body of material. Many of his recurring scholarly interests and viewpoints are related to his own experience and were established at an early age.

American Anthropologist New Series 4: He developed one of the kroener university-affiliated anthropological museums, in San Francisco now in Berkeleyone of the early departments of anthropology—at the University of California —and a major monographic publication series.

Culture as the superorganic

Race, Language, Culture, Psychology, and Prehistory. Decorative Art and Symbolism.

Then, by comparing these materials with materials from other coastal valleys, he developed a complex time sequence.

Author: admin